Female Infertility Causes
Premature ovarian failure
This disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response, where your body mistakenly attacks ovarian tissues. It results in the loss of the eggs in the ovary, as well as in decreased estrogen production.
Damage to fallopian tubes
When fallopian tubes become damaged or blocked, they keep sperm from getting to the egg or close off the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. Causes of fallopian tube damage or blockage can include:
- Inflammation of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) due to chlamydia or gonorrhea
- Previous ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg becomes implanted and starts to develop in a fallopian tube instead of in the uterus
- Previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis
Endometriosis occurs when tissue that normally grows in the uterus implants and grows in other locations. This extra tissue growth – and the surgical removal of it – can cause scarring, which impairs fertility. Researchers think that the excess tissue may also produce substances that interfere with conception.
Cervical narrowing or blockage
Also called cervical stenosis, this can be caused by an inherited malformation or damage to the cervix. The result is that the cervix can’t produce the best type of mucus for sperm mobility and fertilization. In addition, the cervical opening may be closed, preventing any sperm from reaching the egg.
Benign polyps or tumors (fibroids or myomas) in the uterus, common in women in their 30s, can impair fertility by blocking the fallopian tubes or by disrupting implantation. However, many women who have fibroids can become pregnant. Scarring within the uterus also can disrupt implantation, and some women born with uterine abnormalities, such as an abnormally shaped (bicornate) uterus, can have problems becoming or remaining pregnant.
Other variables that may cause infertility in women:
At least 10% of all cases of female infertility are caused by an abnormal uterus. Conditions such as fibroid, polyps, and adenomyosis may lead to obstruction of the uterus and Fallopian tubes.
Congenital abnormalities, such as septate uterus, may lead to recurrent miscarriages or the inability to conceive.
Approximately 3% of couples face infertility due to problems with the females cervical mucus. The mucus needs to be of a certain consistency and available in adequate amounts for sperm to swim easily within it. The most common reason for abnormal cervical mucus is a hormone imbalance, namely too little estrogen or too much progesterone.